Fard, Sunnah, Mustahabbat and Makruhat in Wudu

The compulsory actions or Fard in Wudu (Ablution) are as follows:

  1. Washing the face from hair of the forehead to the lower portion of the chin; and across from one ear to the other
  2. Washing both hands and arms upto the elbows
  3. Performing the Masa’h (wiping with wet hands, one fourth of one’s head)
  4. Washing both the feet upto the ankles

There are total 13 Sunnah actions in Ablution. These are:

  1. Saying the Intention (Niyyah)
  2. Reciting ‘Bismillah’
  3. Washing the hands, three times, upto the wrists
  4. Brushing teeth with a tooth-stick (Miswak)
  5. Rinsing the mouth, thrice
  6. Sniffing water into the nostrils, thrice,
  7. Combing (doing Khilal) the beard with the fingers
  8. Passing fingers of both hands, against each other, and also passing them through the toes (Khilal of fingers and toes)
  9. Washing, each limb, three times
  10. Performing the Masa’h once over the whole head
  11. Performing the Masa’h of the two ear
  12. Performing Ablution (Wudu) in proper order
  13. Washing each part, one after the other, without pause, to ensure that no part dries up before the next step. (see topics on Mas’ha on Socks)

In addition to Fard and Sunnah there are some other desirable actions (Mustahabbat) in Wudu. These are:

  1. To begin Ablution (Wudu) from the right side Some scholars regard this among the Masnun (Sunnah) acts. This is quite likely.
  2. Performing ‘Masa’h’ of the nape.
  3. Performing Ablution all by himself, without taking other’s help.
  4. Facing Qiblah.
  5. Performing Ablution while sitting at a clean and elevated place.

Some things that are not considered as desirable in Wudu are known as Makruhat. These are:

  1. Performing Ablution at a dirty place
  2. Blowing one’s nose with the right hand
  3. Talking worldly affairs while performing Ablution
  4. Performing Ablution in a manner contrary to Sunnah